Classification of NTMs

CategoryChapter Description
Technical measuresChapter A, on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS), refers to laws, decrees, regulations, requirements, standards and procedures to protect human, animal or plant life or health from certain risks such as the establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease-carrying organisms or disease-causing organisms; risks from additives, contaminants, toxins, disease causing organisms in foods, beverages or feedstuffs. Hygienic requirements, fumigation requirements or quarantine are examples. The chapter is also known as SPS.
 Chapter B, on technical barriers to trade (TBT), contains measures referring to the technical specification of products or production processes and conformity assessment systems thereof. They exclude SPS, but a TBT measure may be applied to food products, if the measure is not for food safety. Product identity or quality requirements are examples.
 Chapter C, on pre-shipment inspection and other formalities, refers to the practice of checking, consigning, monitoring and controlling the shipment of goods before or at entry into the destination country.
Non-technical measuresChapter D, on price control measures, implemented to control the prices of imported articles in order to: support the domestic price of certain products when the import price of these goods is lower; establish the domestic price of certain products because of price fluctuation in domestic markets or price instability in a foreign market; and counteract the damage resulting from the occurrence of 'unfair' foreign trade practices.
 Chapter E, on licences, quotas, prohibitions and other quantity control measures, measures that restrain the quantity of goods that can be imported, regardless of whether they come from different sources or from one specific supplier. These measures can take the form of restrictive licensing, fixing of a predetermined quota or through prohibitions.
 Chapter F, on charges, taxes and other para-tariff measures, refers to measures other than tariffs that increase the cost of imports in a similar manner, i.e. by a fixed percentage or by a fixed amount. They are also known as para-tariff measures. Customs surcharges and general sales taxes are examples.
 Chapter G, on finance measures, refers to measures that are intended to regulate the access to and cost of foreign exchange for imports and define the terms of payment. They may increase import costs in the same manner as tariff measures
 Chapter H, on anti-competitive measures, intended to grant exclusive or special preferences or privileges to one or more limited groups of economic operators.
 Chapter I, on trade-related investment measures, by requesting local content or requesting that investment be related to export to balance imports.
 Chapter J, on distribution restrictions, related to the internal distribution of imports.
 Chapter K, on restrictions on post-sales services, measures restricting the provision of post-sales services in the importing country by producers of exported goods.
 Chapter L, on subsidies, includes measures related to financial contributions by a government or government body to a production structure, be it a particular industry or company, such as direct or potential transfer of funds (e.g. grants, loans, equity infusions), payments to a funding mechanism and income or price support.
 Chapter M, on government procurement restrictions, refers to measures controlling the purchase of goods by government agencies, generally by preferring national providers.
 Chapter N, on intellectual property, measures related to intellectual property rights in trade. Intellectual property legislation covers patents, trademarks, industrial designs, layout designs of integrated circuits, copyright, geographical indications and trade secrets
 Chapter O, on rules of origin, covers laws, regulations and administrative determinations of general application applied by the governments of importing countries.
Export measuresChapter P, on export-related measures, encompasses all measures that countries apply to their exports. It includes export taxes, export quotas or export prohibitions.
Source: UNCTAD (2012)